Friday, March 16, 2018

Sir Ken Robinson - currently visiting New Zealand. 'Creativity is as important as literacy and numeracy'

Education Readings
This week featuring Sir Ken Robinson

By Allan Alach
I welcome suggested articles, so if you come across a gem, email it to me at

Here are some links to acknowledge Sir Ken Robinson who is currently in New Zealand.

Sir Ken Robinson: creative thought leader in education

Interview on Radio New Zealand on Sunday 4th March.

Summerhill School: learning as students choose

Sir Ken referenced this school in his interview, so here is an interview with Zoe Readhead, daughter of A.S. Neill - a must listen.

‘Summerhill is an alternative free school in Suffolk, England, started by educational leader A.S. Neill in 1921. The pupils are free to come to lessons as they choose, and students and teachers have an equal voice in decision making.’

Ken Robinson: Government “Standardization” Blocks Innovative Education Reform

“I never blame teachers or schools… But there is this deadly culture of standardizing, that’s being pushed on them, politically. My core message here is that we have to personalize education, not standardize it. That all children are different, and we have to find their talents and cultivate them.”

Do Schools Kill Creativity?

If you’ve never watching Sir Ken Robinson’s Ted Talk from 2006, or if you’ve not seen it for  a while, here it is. Either way, it is a must watch.

Sir Ken Robinson - Can Creativity Be Taught?

Links to many other Sir Ken videos can also be found here.

“Modern ADHD Epidemic is Fiction” – Ken Robinson

‘Our children are living in the most intensive stimulating period in the history of the earth. They’re being besieged with information and coerced for attention from every platform: computers, from IPhones, from advertising hoardings, from hundreds of television channels. And we’re penalizing them now for getting distracted. From what? Boring stuff. At school, for the most part. It seems to me not a coincidence, totally, that the instance of ADHD has risen in parallel with the growth of the standardized testing. Now these kids are being given Ritalin and Aderol and all manner of things, often quite dangerous drugs, to get them focused and calm them down… It’s a fictitious epidemic.'

Moving on:

Does writing by hand still matter in the digital age?

Technology is having an impact on children’s handwriting ability. But what does this mean for learning and development?

‘But what of the role that handwriting plays in learning and development? And with technology changing how we live and work, what place does handwriting have in the modern classroom? These were the questions put to the teachers, academics and specialists in education and technology at the Guardian’s roundtable event on 27 February.’

But is there even a correct way to hold a pen?

‘It's true that handwriting employs our hand muscles differently from the swiping and tapping motions we use to navigate the online world of today.
But when it comes to scrawling words on the page, the idea of 'correct' pencil grasp is actually way older than the iPhone - and science shows that there appears to be more than one way to correctly hold a pen.'

Arts integration: Turning teaching on its head
‘Sometimes the arts are used alongside a lesson being taught – for
example, students might turn their writing into a performance and ‘act it out’ or perhaps draw a picture of what they have learned. We consider that in these instances, arts are simply being used alongside other subject areas, and while we like this idea, it is not what we mean by arts integrationIn our view, arts integration is a method of teaching, a pedagogical approach that focuses on the [non-arts] subject being taught, and not necessarily on the art form.’

Contributed by Bruce Hammonds:

Learning from one of New Zealand's pioneer teacher - Elwyn Richardson
(Author of 'In The Early World ' possibly the best book written about education anywhere. ..)

Bruce’s article here is the perfect follow-on from the Sir Ken Robinson links and shows a way to Elwyn Richardson took creative primary education to a new and, I suspect, still unsurpassed level. long before Sir Ken's rise to fame.

‘Elwyn expressed concern that due to learning becoming over intellectualized ( and therefore available to be assessed), that intuitive thought was in danger of being neglected. There was, he felt, a danger of learning becoming too conceptualized and that this would result in damaging students' intuition and creativity. That it would result in the neglect or downplaying of the creative arts.’

Bill Gates Admits His Common Core Experiment Is A Failure

This comes on the heels of New Zealand abandoning their rather similar national standards. Maybe non-educators should stick to their knitting…

Wrong Bill Gates
After spending $400 million on forcing schools around the country to adopt Common Core, Bill Gates has finally admitted that the controversial teaching method is a failure, and significantly less effective than traditional teaching methods. 

Parents and teachers across the nation have been urging schools to dump the toxic Common Core curriculum, arguing that it deliberately dumbs down children and creates unnecessary and complicated methods for working out relatively simple problems.’

Assessment in the early years…

‘A recent story I heard talked about a display that pitted children against each other in a race to be
reading at a certain level.  This kind of practice breaks my heart.  I don't for a moment think that these teachers are doing this to hurt children, but I don't think they have taken time to think about how the children feel.  How does this shape their view of what reading is or even learning is?   How does it promote a culture of shared learning and journey?  How does it speak to these children about failure and mistakes?’

From Bruce’s ‘goldie oldies’ file:
Here’s a collection of all Bruce’s articles about Sir Ken Robinson.
Out of Our Minds

‘A book to read for all who believe in creative education. 'Out of Our Minds' by Sir Ken Robinson. Introductory keynote speaker at the 07 NZPPF Conference to be held in Auckland.’

Importance of Creativity

'Sir Ken talks about the importance of nurturing innovative solutions in the classrooms - indeed in every aspect of life. Sir Ken is now senior adviser to the Paul Getty Trust and was knighted in 2003 for his commitment to the creative arts and education in the UK.  is set to become the 'buzz' word of the future. Sir Ken sees creativity as essential for students as they seek jobs in the future.’

‘Creative Schools’ a book by Sir Ken Robinson

‘A must read for anyone who believes in an education system that aims at developing the gifts and talents of all students. Read this article about Sir Ken's latest book My plea is for creative teachers, particularly those in New Zealand, to share this with as many teachers and schools as they can because the message is so important.’

The need to transform schools – Sir Ken Robinson

‘One writer school leaders could get behind to give support is Sir Ken Robinson who is well known to many schools. And there are many others. It is also ironic that while Western countries follow neo liberal ideology leading to testing, standardization and privatization Asian counties are working hard to break out of high stake testing and introduce more creativity into their systems!’

National Standards gone – now it’s time for creativity says Sir Ken

‘The previous Nationals  Government was right in believing schools should do a lot better. No
student should leave school feeling a failure. The trouble is their approach is wrong, and ironically, with its desire for all students to be assessed against National Standards, is creating ‘winners and losers’ environment and in the process narrowing the curriculum and encourages teaching to the tests. Sir Ken Robinson call this standardization a fast food approach; an  approach that has its genesis in the past industrial age.’

Sir Ken Robinson and Tony Wagner

‘While schools are distracted by ensuring they are seen to do well in achieving / improving their National Standards and NCEA data they are creating the very hyper-accountability conditions that make it difficult for creative teachers.’

Time for teachers to escape the National Standards box - time for teachers to be creative!

Wednesday, March 14, 2018

Learning from one of New Zealand's pioneer teachers - Elwyn Richardson

Author of 'In The Early World ' possibly the best book written about education anywhere. ..

Recently republished by the NZCER
All school  should have a copy

The life and times of Elwyn Richardson  and the history of creative education in New Zealand by Margaret Mac Donald  is also available.
Margaret's  important book reveals the rich soil from which our best ideas and practices came. It is a timely reminder
of what is possible, in an era when teachers feel increasingly shackled by forces beyond their control.

In the mid seventies Elwyn visited Taranaki to meet up with teachers who were interested in his ideas about creative teaching. I have just come across some notes I made during a talk he gave in 1976 and published in 2007 before the introduction of National Standards which has distracted teachers. 
His ideas still seem as relevant as ever.
The 2007 New Zealand Curriculum

Our latest 'new' NZ Curriculum sees students as, 'active seekers, users and

creators' of their own knowledge. Sooner or later the emphasis will be placed on developing the full range of talents and intelligences of all students if we really want to be an innovative and creative country.

 Below are my 'interpretation' of Elwyn's ideas, written at the time, but you will get the 'message'.
My advice is to buy his book -and to imagine what he could have achieved with modern information media. I visit numbers of classes with lots of ICT 'bling' and 'higher order thinking skills' but with few products of genuine creative teaching to be seen.

Back to Elwyn's ideas.

'Normal' teaching, Elwyn believes, results in a loose commitment to teacher tasks and, as a result, many students develop a low level of achievement and
personal satisfaction.

A 'good' classroom should develop in students a personal commitment to their learning.

Teachers can do this through: talking, discussion, focusing students' attention, helping them look closely at things,by taking trips into the immediate environment, and by tapping their personal experiences. From such activities students develop ideas to research and share and emotional feeling to express through words, poems, paintings and other art media.

Such classrooms create a 'creative outlook' that values students ideas across all learning areas.

Teachers in such an environment develop a 'master/apprenticeship' relationship with their students and do all they can to help them to plan their own activities. Teachers need to learn to value the experiences that students bring
New Plymouth Pioner teacher Bill G
with them to school and to make use of such areas of interest in personal writing, literacy, art and, possibly, to develop studies around

Teacher expectation is important.

Students pick up feelings about what teachers value and what they expect; they are expert at reading the 'emotional atmosphere' of the room. True learning is learning how you feel about things and how to control, develop, or express your feelings appropriately. The best experiences are the student's own experiences. All too often these are ignored as teachers impose the own topics or subjects.

Class organisation

In some parts of the world some teachers have gone too far and make little contribution to helping their students develop their ideas resulting in superficial learning.  Elwyn believes there is a time for the teacher to contribute and that students need the security of a loose timetable with some fixed points. Too much freedom can lead to brand of anarchy.

(Today the problem is too much teacher input with : exemplars, criteria, objectives, testing, imposed 'intentions! . WALTS, feedback and feedforward leading to well done but hardy creative products.The teachers role has become benignly oppressive. This formulaic  standardised teaching has been destructive of student creativity)
Formulaic /standardised teaching.

Elwyn believes strongly that students need to be helped to identify with their natural environment.

To do this teachers need to collect natural things of interest and introduce them into their classrooms. By encouraging students to look closely at such things, taking advantage of their natural curiosity, students learn to make use of their senses, develop visual observational skills and become pattern conscious.

Drawings and poetic thoughts will capture such ideas and will in turn lead to enriching students vocabulary and language facility generally. With such skills in place trips to the immediate environment become far more productive, children able to notice grass movements, patterns at the beach or bush, tyre marks and shells and to respond to them creatively.

( These is the experiences that far too any of our 'modern students miss out on.)

Elwyn expressed concern that due to learning becoming over intellectualized ( and therefore available to be assessed), that intuitive thought was in danger of being neglected. There was, he felt, a danger of learning becoming too conceptualized and that this would result in damaging students' intuition and creativity. That it would result in the neglect or downplaying of the creative arts.

(Which has happened)

'Creativity has to be engendered'.

 Returning to the teachers role Elwyn said that creativity is not about letting students 'rip into things' Creativity , he said, has to be engendered - it is a way of resolving things; a kind of release. He mentioned a quote that said, 'We have no art we do every thing as well as we can'.

About year three, he believes, children begin to identify with excellence and to learn from other children. We, as teachers, need to help students develop a sense of personal excellence.Teachers ought not be too good a judge.Talk about their art, or language, but be careful not to take decisions away from the students.

Help them make their own choices and to consider what they might do differently 'next time'. But, equally, don't be too weak a judge. Be positive,
joyful,even jealous of their talents; allow yourself to speak. Our own education, Elwyn said, all too often has dammed our own aesthetic values.

Use the classroom environment to provide positive reinforcement of excellence. Display the best of each students work on the classroom walls. Publish their work. Be respectful of their thoughts. Talk with the about their work , get them to share it with others. Enjoy their creativity.

We need to help our students see beauty everywhere.

We need to get our students out into their environment but, to do this, we have to be aware as teachers ourselves.

Elwyn concluded with a few things to do:

Read poems -enjoy the imagery
Read 'powerful' pieces from books
Be consistent.Stick to your ideas.Give children consistent experiences rather than to 'dabble' in activities. 'Do fewer things well' otherwise there is no growth.
Provide students with challenging problems across the curriculum to think about.
Intensify their observations by directing their attention to: line, shape, colour, texture to feed the imagination .We need to develop students perception.
Listen to the students - help them develop their own abstractions.
Reinforce personal excellence, pray for miracles and be grateful for small mercies.
Encourage students intuition.
Trust children - be broadly accepting.Have an open mind. Students will contribute and share their experiences if we give them 'permission' and they feel you are open to their ideas.

Too many of our students have been mis -educated, we need to help them find themselves through their own creativity.

( The challenge remains)

Other blogs about Elwyn

Margaret MacDonald's book on Elwyn
NZCER Review of In the Early World
Reclaiming the joy of learning.
Personalised learning - nothing new
Elwyn Richardson 1925 - 2012
Creative teaching - timeless
Whose learning is it?
Creativity not standardisation.

One of Elwyn's students large paintings

Friday, March 09, 2018

Time to return to teacher creativity - time to end formulaic standardised education

Education Readings

Creative teachers are the key to the future
Readings to encourage a creative approach to teaching and learning.
By Allan Alach

I welcome suggested articles, so if you come across a gem, email it to me at

6 Techniques for Building Reading Skills—in Any Subject

Students need good reading skills not just in English but in all classes. Here are some ways you can help them develop those skills.

My technique Bruce H !!
'Without a repertoire of reading strategies that can be applied to any text, students are being shortchanged in their education. In order to teach students to read effectively, teachers must be sure that they are not simply suppliers of information on a particular text but also instructors of techniques to build reading skills. Here are some ideas on how to incorporate reading skills lessons into a curriculum.’

Academic Sponge Activities

A sponge activity is a lesson that soaks up precious time that would otherwise be lost. Hint: It should be fun as well as educational.

When failing lessons need to be abandoned, it’s time to implement a sponge. Madeline Hunter originated the term sponge activities to describe “learning activities that soak up precious time that would otherwise be.” The best sponges are academically rich and provoke laughter. Nicholas Ferroni, an education writer for The Huffington Post, says that laughter activates dopamine and the learning centers of the brain.'

Managing the Oppositional-Defiant Child in the Classroom

‘Some of the most challenging students I’ve had to teach have been those with Oppositional-Defiant Disorder. These are the students who challenge the behavioral norms in the classroom, often show low academic achievement, and lack motivation. Thankfully, there is plenty of research behind teaching these tough nuts to crack and lots of resources out there to help you figure out interventions to support them in the classroom.'

Scaffolding Student Thinking in Projects

‘In order to skillfully embrace the challenges and opportunities they will encounter in life, our students need to develop sophisticated
thinking skills that extend far beyond disciplinary boundaries. From understanding and unpacking problems, constraints, and possibilities, to identifying patterns and addressing biases, the types of thinking we should be nurturing in students are many and complex.’

STEM may be the future—but liberal arts are timeless

'Society has therefore devalued the study of literature, history, politics, philosophy, and sociology
as wasteful or pointless. Many suggest we all just should learn skills such as coding, digital marketing, and web development instead. But this is not the direction the world is heading in. Professional requirements are changing so quickly in the real world that lessons deemed relevant in the first year of college are barely relevant upon graduation—and much less early into one’s career.’

Contributed by Bruce Hammonds:

Teaching in a Modern Learning Environment - with a twist!

Bruce’s latest article:

Modern Learning Environments must be more than an architectural innovation. Modern Learning Environments provides the means to devise learning situations which open up the potential for extending the learning of the students. It means attempting to develop within the individual learner all the skills and attitudes of a competent independent learner.’

Primary pupils' maths skills 'dropping alarmingly', report finds

After seven years of national standards, on top of 27 years of a neoliberal education philosophy,
the damage to NZ education is starting to become very clear. Fortunately the new government may have seen the light and so things may start to turn around. Time will tell.

'A new report has found schools that improve maths teaching and remove streaming were more successful in reversing a "worrying" downward trend in children's maths abilities. Schools that abolish classes specifically for talented pupils have a better chance of addressing declining achievement in maths, a new report has found.’

Critical thinking in an age of fake news

'In a post-truth era of alternative facts and fake news, the ability to discern what is true is an increasingly important skill.

Learning the skills to apply reason to claims is something built into New Zealand’s school curriculum as one of five key competencies required for living and lifelong learning. Critical thinking involves questioning evidence, the validity of sources of information and reaching conclusions based on evidence.'

This Yale Psychiatrist Knows How to Shut Down the School to Prison Pipeline: So Why is He Ignored?

What Dr. Comer has demonstrated, is that the academic success of children (especially those from poor neighborhoods) depends on educators building good relationships with their parents and truly caring about the students. It begins by first focusing on transforming the social environment of a school community.

Successful change does not begin with national standards or standardized testing (though test scores will also rise significantly, as an outcome of the cultural changes).’

Study: Too Many Structured Activities May Hinder Children's Executive Functioning

So much for WALTs, success criteria, teacher intentions, worksheets, phonics, heavy teacher
feedback /forward ~ formulaic standardised education….

‘When children spend more time in structured activities, they get worse at working toward goals, making decisions, and regulating their behavior, according to a study.

Instead, kids might learn more when they have the responsibility to decide for themselves what they're going to do with their time. Psychologists at the University of Colorado and the University of Denver studied the schedules of 70 six-year olds, and they found that the kids who spent more time in less-structured activities had more highly-developed self-directed executive function.’

Out with over structured teaching - value student creativity
If Only We Could Find A Way To Not Un-Learn It

‘It's a truth that I feel in my own heart, even if I often struggle to live it, but the more time I've spent
with young children, the more I stay out of their way, the more I see that they are the ones who truly understand it, not intellectually of course, but by simply living in the "Now," regarding their fellow humans in their toils or trails, and making a decision to help them. This is why I can never consider adults as more intelligent than children.’

From Bruce’s ‘goldie oldies’ file:
Why schools don't educate.

‘We live in a time of great school crises, Gatto began his presentation, ‘and we need to define and
redefine endlessly what the word education should mean. Something is wrong. Our school crisis is a reflection of a wider social crisis – a society that lives in the constant present, based on narcotic consumption’

What's the Point of School?

'The purpose of education' Claxton writes, is to prepare young
people for the future. Schools should be helping Young people to develop the capacities they will need to thrive. What they need and want, is the confidence to talk to strangers, to try things out, to handle tricky situations, to stand up for themselves, to ask for help, to think new thoughts' .'This is not to much to ask', says Claxton, 'but they are not getting it'.

Wednesday, March 07, 2018

Teaching in a Modern Learning Environment - with a twist !

Teaching in a Modern Learning Environment (MLE) or an ILA – innovative learning environment or a FLE – flexible learning environment.

Theme based on Hemmingway's Old Man and the Sea
Teaching in a Modern Learning Environment (MLE) offers an opportunity to extend the educational opportunities that can be offered to students.
To achieve anything that is more than an extension than which can be achieved in ordinary classrooms is the problem.
Architecturally ‘opening’ out the classrooms will naturally make quite a difference to the learning situations for both learners and teachers.
 Students will be able to feel part of larger more complex and initially exciting unit and this will apply to the teachers as well but for the teachers in particular will be the feeling of being in a team. This will allow teachers to share their problems and successes – and most importantly will enable a variety of organisational arrangements to be made imposable in self-contained classroom.
Theme based on local and famous churches
These gains in themselves for both teachers and students are considerable but if the teaching methods are only an extension of ‘traditional ‘ subject centred teaching then the advantages are minimal.
 New classroom design asks for a more imaginative approach.
Modern Learning Environments must be more than an architectural innovation. Modern Learning Environments provide the means to devise learning situations which open up the potential for extending the learning of the students. It means attempting to develop within the individual learner all the skills and attitudes of a competent independent learner.
It means giving the students the chance to learn for their own reasons rather than completing teacher arranged tasks which in many traditional classrooms are completely divorced from the learners own reality. These newer opportunities requires a new philosophy towards education.
It will mean different things to different people but essentially it is a learner centred approach which has as its key the need for all students to become successful learners. Failure as a concept must be minimized and seem as a learning opportunity and not a dominant feature as it is in our present traditional approach.  The needs and attitudes of the students are of greater importance than the needs of any traditional subject. 
It can be seen that to operate a Modern Learning Environment can be simply an extension of traditional teaching. 
In the present educational climate Modern Learning Environments provide the glamour but innovative teaching can often be seen in ‘ordinary’ classrooms.
Much of the current Modern Learning Environment teaching is more correctly ‘team teaching’, a devise to teach subjects using traditional methods in a new situation (streaming, ability grouping and a focus on subjects). Merely individualising learning is an extension of current practice and not an innovation.
To best take advantage of a Modern Learning Environment best requires teachers who have achieved success developing creative programmes in a contained classroom. 
It will be a challenge to extend such a philosophy in a diversified space. Necessarily there will a considerable transitional period to introduce new ideas; a time for all to adapt to the new conditions.  No doubt for a considerable length of time methods may have to be utilised that may be contrary to the spirit of a Modern Learning Environment until new methods and new confidence are gained by both teachers and students.

  I wrote the above  in the 1970s. 

‘Those who don’t know history are doomed to repeat it’ Edmund Burke

In those times such flexible buildings were called open plan schools. I have simply written in Modern Learning Environment to replace the original phrase of open plan schools. In the 1970s there was a movement (centering in the USA) known as ‘open’ education.
I worked with one of the few very successful open units in the 70s one led by John Cunningham at Waitara Central in Taranaki 1974-5. 
Most of the open plan schools eventually replied or closed off their walls and their success, or lack of it, provides valuable learning for teachers involved in today’s Modern Learning Environments.
The ideas that John and his team implemented were (based on his notes):
1.       To develop a diversified day utilising group organisations to allow students to work as individual with, where possible, a choice of activities; to develop a ‘workshop’ type atmosphere with a number of subject areas progressing at any one time.
2.      To develop a curriculum based largely on the immediate environment (historical and natural), student’s interests, all with a focus on providing students with first hand experiences. An emphasis to be placed on careful observational work.
3.      The importance of the development of skills  to assist the students to become independent and self-motivated learners, in particular the  need for students to work carefully by slowing down the pace of their work and also to develop a range of presentation skills.
4.      Appreciating the importance of the total learning environment. This require students’ work to be carefully displayed and new topics introduced by well-arranged teacher displays. All visual space should be thoughtfully utilised. Every attempt should be make the classrooms as stimulating and challenging as possible.
5.      Every learner should experience success and appreciate the need for self-discipline. Learning should be personalised as well as individualised.

The Waitara open unit was based on a ‘nook and cranny ‘model rather than the ‘open prairies’ of the architecturally designed units - an approach more suited for team teaching.
Theme based on Mount Taranaki Study
Open plan units (or Modern Learning Environments) require an evolutionary programme.
The 100 students and 4 teachers structured around four home groups deliberately keeping the security of conventional classrooms but care was taken to avoid home rooms returning to conventional teaching. The daily programme was evolutionary and as teachers and students gained skills more choice was offered to students. Programmes ranged from formal to flexible. As the year progressed programmes became more student orientated.
There was a need to ensure a balance of content areas to be covered and teachers focussed on ensuring students’ were not occupied by busy ‘shallow’ work particularly when given choices. Basic skill teaching to ensure independent was covered by withdrawal groups as required.
Cooperative planning is a strength of open plan teaching and the main themes of the activity programme were planned together
Within this planning there needs to be the necessary element of choice for teachers and students – teachers strengths can be shared with all.  From the ‘master plan’ teachers choose areas to develop and share. Check lists are used to ensure all students cover planned areas. At all times the unit has a number of activities being undertaken. The current theme is introduced by teacher arranged motivational displays that are added to by student work as the study progresses.
Science maths technology study based on  local bridges
Themes are chosen which offer a diversity of subject areas and creative activities and are introduced to the whole group by a selected teacher. Integrated learning.
After starting in the home group students are involved in mixed ability groups with the maths programme which features activity problem solving challenges and related to the current theme study if appropriate. This is followed by language time – once again integrated as required with the theme study. Students with special needs are helped in small withdrawal group and then returned to the main groups.  Language time includes research reading, spelling (words from the current
Snail art, maths and language 
study) and handwriting also linked with the current theme.
Literature usually starts the afternoon programme in home groups. The remainder of the day involves students undertaking a range of tasks based around the theme working with teachers with strengths in the area. Times are programmed for Maori culture, music and PE with groups rotating. Whole unit singing on Friday and sharing of work finish the week
For all this there is no one system of organisation and the open unit offers opportunity for flexibility and change. 
 Sometimes an activity and withdrawal programme; sometimes whole day student choice (true open education); sometimes students take up choice from a range offered by the teachers.
Students are given considerable choice and are free to move about and talk about their work.
 Success depends on student ownership of tasks (group or individual) and having the opportunity to have the skills in place to achieve quality work – this includes presentation skills.
Special attention is given to finished work that reflects the students own questions and research
Student completed work – their research, language, art and maths is displayed with the care it deserves.
One quote that underpins the unit comes from Charles Silberman author of Crisis in the Classroom, ‘Happiness has got to derive from achievement and success not by just having a good time’.
Themes introduced through teacher displays with student work later added
Relevance to today’s Modern Learning Environments.
Obviously the ideas above were pre modern information technology but the basic issue remains that to make such flexible, or innovative learning, spaces work depend on: pedagogical leadership and alignment of staff; relationships between all involved; and the quality of the learning undertaken by the students.
In all areas of life we need to look backwards to move into the future.

' Those who do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it'  Santana

We build our building and then they shape us’ Winston Churchill.
Local historical  swing bridge basis on an integrated study